Kosta’s Map

I love speaking with the villagers in Sparta. They know their land with a level of intimacy that astonishes me:  every hiding place in the Taygetos mountains, every olive tree on their land, every goat trail that leads to an abandoned kalivia (shepherd’s hut), and the origins of every family in the village. Last summer, simply by hearing the surname, Christos told me that my great-grandfather, Andreas Kostakos, was from the now-abandoned village of Perganteika (read that post here).

The Kostakos family origins have mystified me for years and have morphed into my never-ending quest. The -akos suffix designates the Mani region, but I can’t find the family in any records outside of the Sparta area before 1844. The reason? Greece became an independent country on February 3,1830, after 400 years of Ottoman rule. It took time for the new government to begin record keeping; not much exists prior to 1840. Thus, all Greeks have the proverbial brick-wall during this timeframe.

Christos’ insistence that the Kostakos family was first in Perganteika, then in Anavryti, then in Agios Ioannis after the War of Independence (about 1835-40) has not satisfied my desire for proof. (An elusive commodity in Greek research). So, I pester anyone whom I meet with many questions. In return, I get bits and pieces, and sometimes a treasure like the one below (click on image to enlarge it).

Last July at the home of Peter Adamis in Pellana, I received an exensive history-geography lesson from Peter’s friend, Kosta. A native of the area and a renowned stone and marble mason, Kosta’s artisan work is found in government buildings, churches and homes throughout Lakonia. He has a comprehensive knowledge of the region and its people. And he shared much with me.

Kosta explained what I heard many times:  people fled to the towering Taygetos mountains to escape Ottoman dominion; after 1830 they started their descent into the valleys to begin a life of freedom. Kosta patiently and carefully sketched the map above to depict “layers of villages,” beginning at the top of the Taygetos range and descending into the plains of Sparta. I could now plainly see how the villages were staggered and, at times, stacked upon each other. As his pen moved down the page, I could almost visualize people moving down, incrementally, from the peaks. It was a logical movement of humanity and a powerful moment of clarity.

Kosta’s stories mesmerized me. These people–my people–were resilient, tough, inventive, smart, and scrappy survivors. The more I hear about village life in the 1800’s, the more I want to learn. I love Kosta’s map. It has not solved the Kostakos origin mystery, but it has enhanced my understanding. My respect for my ancestors grows with each fact I learn, and I am proud to be their descendant.

New Greek Genealogy Website Has Launched!

Launching today is a powerful new tool for Greek genealogists, the website, GreekAncestry.net. This is the first digital platform created to meet the needs of people who are researching their families in Greece. The site is bi-lingual, and people can search by name or village, in either English or Greek. For those who struggle to read Greek script, this feature is priceless.

The website hosts over 100,000 images from the following regions in Greece:  Arcadia (Tripolis), Crete (Chania), Lakonia (Sparta) and Messinia (Kalamata). Types of records include: voting lists, military lists, male registers, census records, and many more. The  databases will be updated on a monthly basis.

To assist with navigating the site and ordering records, video tutorials are available:

How to Navigate the Website

How to Search and Order Records

In searching the site for Lakonia, I found the name of my great-grandfather, Andreas Kostakos, in a list of men eligible to vote in 1844 in Sparta. I am so very excited to find many of my Spartan surnames. My research will leap forward now that I can look for specific people in specific villages.

As records from additional areas in Greece are indexed and made available, I know that regular users of GreekAncestry.net will be able to find information previously “hidden” to them. Many people will now be able to link the present to past, and share copies of original records with their families.

Every record that is ordered will come with an English translation, a full source citation, and a digital image. The cost for one record is $8.99, and the price decreases the more records that are ordered. Such a small price to pay for having the luxury of conducting a name-search in Greek records, especially those that are handwritten in old script!

GreekAncestry.net is founded by historian and professional Hellenic genealogist, Gregory Kontos. An expert in Greek migration history, Gregory is a leader in the Greek genealogy community. He pioneers digitization projects, supervises indexing teams, and conducts research for people worldwide. I have worked with Greg and have full confidence in his knowledge and trust in his honesty. I wish my friend great success, and thank him for making this service available.

I Sign, Therefore I Am

A signature is a personal stamp of existence. Whether a simple “x” or an embellished autograph, each mark is the creation of its maker and documents his/her presence on earth.

Sadly, I do not have pictures of my Spartan ancestors. Cameras were simply not part of a village household in the early-mid 1900’s. I have only photos of my two great-grandmothers: Stathoula Zaharakis Eftaxias and Afroditi Lerikou Aridas.

But, thanks to my research trips, I do have photos of documents. And some of those documents have signatures of the men in my family.

I am spending hours extracting information from civil birth and death records which I obtained from the Lixarheion in Magoula in July 2019. Lixarheion offices were created in the 1920’s as the repositories of civil records of birth, marriage and death. As men came to this office and registered the vital events of their families’ lives, their names were recorded as the declarant, and they signed each document to witness that the information they provided was correct.

This is the death record for Ioannis Panagiotis Lerikos, who is Afroditi’s brother and my great granduncle. His Male Register (Mitroon Arrenon) gives his birth year as 1875; and his civil death record, below, gives his death date as June 11, 1937. The declarer is his uncle, Aristedes Aridas, whose signature is on the bottom left.

Ioannis Panagiotis Lerikos, died June 11, 1937 in Agios Ioannis

As I work my way through civil birth and death records, I use Snag-It, a snipping tool, to capture signatures which become substitutes for photos. Although they are not portraits, they are valid representations of each person. Every autograph is as unique as its author.

As a Christmas gift, my nieces gave me this unique bracelet. It is my mother’s handwriting. Look closely and you can read “Love You, Mom.”

Our signatures may not be famous, but they are uniquely ours and wise genealogists use them to distinguish people of the same name. When we sign, we attest that we lived. And sometimes in our research, that’s as close as we can get to visualizing those who came before us.

 

Lakonian Emigration

This summer in Areopoli, Mani, I visited the one-of-a-kind Adouloti Mani bookstore. The owner, Georgios Dimakogiannis, is also a publisher and his store is a treasure for anyone seeking information about the southern Peloponnese and Mani in particular.

In his magazine, Adouloti Mani – Laconia Odos, Issue 3, 2019, was an article about emigration from Lakonia in the early 1900’s. That was the experience of all four of my Spartan grandparents, and I wanted very much to read the story. I tackled the translation using a dictionary and online translators. It is by no means exact and it is somewhat redacted, but it certainly illuminated for me the realities of their experience. I scanned the original article and it can be accessed here. If you read Greek, you may prefer to read that untouched version which also has additional photos.


Lakonian Emigration

by Donald-George McPhail  (author, researcher, historian)
published in Adouloti Mani – Laconia Odos, Issue 3, 2019

From 1896 to 1921, more than 400,000 inhabitants emigrated from Greece. The legend of America as the “land of promise” and as a refuge for emigrants around the world  undoubtedly permeated Laconia. The years of misery that plagued the predominantly rural population—agricultural disasters, government mismanagement, uncertainty and insecurity, frequent military drafts, and grief over the loss of the war in Thessaly–caused thousands of Greeks to board foreign ships and emigrate. They left haunted by poverty, with the sorrows of their homeland in their hearts, and trusted that things will change in the New World. They believed that in this way they would pay off their homes, marry off  their sisters, and help their parents, their families, and their villages. They hoped that in a few years they would return rich, honored and equipped for a better life.

Emigration was also due to the fact that the demand for labor was greater in America and the wages paid were much higher than in the immigrant’s home country. The Greeks who immigrated to overseas countries had no qualifications other than physical fitness. They were illiterate, naive and innocent deprived people who had no awareness of their power, nor of course their rights.

Greek Immigration to the USA

 

  1. First Immigration: 1873-1899; 15,000
  2. The Great Wave: 1900-1917; 450,000
  3. The Last Exodus: 1918-1924; 70,000
  4. The Era of Restrictions: 1925-1946; 30,000


Preparation for Departure

The trials of the poor and destitute migrants, who cared little for amenities they had never tasted, began long before the trip. Most were unaware of the great difficulties that awaited them in the New World, which hundreds of immigration brokers presented as the Promised Land.  The trip required a lot of money, and the loan agents were looking for security. So, among the emigrants  were many small farmers with mortgaged land.  Even for the very poor and the landless, there was a way. They were bound by employment contracts and so they paid off their fares, as slaves literally, by working in the railways or mines.

Usually the departures of the ocean liners, especially the Greek ones, were festive. The decks were packed by immigrants who waved their handkerchiefs to those who led them, along with the curious crowds who thronged the pier. The band of the municipality played, the ship’s whistles blew, and flags decorated the ship and pier. Last greetings were exchanged with those poor immigrants who had left their hometown and had lived for a few hours in Gythio and Kalamata.

Before 1907, the Greek transatlantic wave to America was overseen by foreign steamer companies until the establishment of the first Greek passenger line. The ports of departure were Piraeus and Patras. Subsequent Greek ocean liners were generally poor, small, slow-moving, and badly traveled trips without even the minimum comforts of a boat.

Life on Board

Judging by the horrible living conditions during the journey on the ships, especially those from 1907 to 1937, immigrants were considered as “cargo.” The third-class steerage areas beneath the main deck were packed with rows of iron or wooden double beds. Passengers were literally on top of each other in desperately narrow spaces. From the very first day, the crowds, the exuding fumes of vomit, the smell of passenger bodies and the lack of elementary cleanliness caused the atmosphere to be suffocating.

The bunks were filled with straw or seaweed. There were no chairs, stools, or  tables. Luggage, clothes, utensils and all belongings had to somehow fit  between the narrow beds. Separation of women passengers was impossible. In their quest for isolation, women hung clothes around their beds to create a rudimentary curtain. The women had the opportunity to dress before eating breakfast and leaving their compartments. They could not arrive late or there would be no food available. Usually, they were not as harassed by their male passengers as by the crew men.

Upon boarding, each passenger was given a spoon, a fork and a tin cup. When breakfast was announced, everyone crowded into an open area as there was no dedicated dining room except for a space with a few tables and benches where women and children would usually sit. The men had to go through the serving area and then find some place to eat, or go out on the windswept open deck.

For ventilation, the law provided for two small “windshields” for every fifty passengers. These “windshields” ended up on the main deck, which was usually a short distance from the surface of the sea, causing third-class passengers to be sprayed with frozen ocean water.

Baths were taken on open decks between seats and compartments.  Showers were in small iron “cabins” and the water was seawater. Needless to say, passengers rarely used them. They were used for washing dishes and clothes, without soap or towels and with cold salty water.

The ticket issuing agencies described the food as healthy and nutritious.  In reality, however, it was so poorly cooked that many found it inedible. The only exception to the whole trip was the last meal before arrival, a supper that could smell like delicacies such as fried potatoes.  The farewell dinner dinner was intended to give pleasure to the next day’s arrival and inspection by the health authorities.

Various states had been slow to adopt provisions for the proper transport of passengers, resulting in steamboat companies exploiting the unfortunate immigrants. An American law stipulated that each passenger could have no less than 2.83 cubic meters. Two children under eight years were counted for one passenger. If this space was not available, the ship’s master had to pay a $50 fine per passenger, but there was never any control by authorities and no relevant fines were imposed.

Arrival

When the ship anchored in America, a fleet of small boats encircled the ocean liner. Men from the Immigration and the Public Health Services boarded the ship and quickly passed through the first and second class cabins, giving a cursory inspection of the passengers in those seats. They then went down to the “fragrant” compartments where the third-class passengers were to examine each traveler. This was the most time-consuming part of their job. When the Public Health people reboarded their boat to go to other vessels, the ship raised the anchor and  slowly headed to the port of New York Harbor, traveling through the fumes of the tugboat towing it.

Upon  arrival, the immigrants’ day was just beginning. After an endless wait on the ship for the checks to be completed, they began to finally descend the staircase of the ship, loaded with their luggage. So overloaded, they headed to the Aliens Service boats waiting for them to take them to the famous Ellis Island known to the Greek immigrants as “Castigari” (from Castle Garden).

Ellis Island

Ellis Island, off Manhattan, was the main hub for immigrants arriving in America from the late 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. There, immigrants were put to the final test, undergoing medical examinations to approve their entry into the United States.  There was tight control for medical conditions that were contagious. Most passed the check and then forgot the hassles of traveling. But if someone was ill or unbalanced he was obliged to return to the port and surrender to the steamship company for repatriation. These unfortunates were sent back to their homeland at company expense, a fact which made steamship companies careful when selecting passengers.

When stringent requirements for trachoma and other contagious diseases were understood, health authorities in Greece examined travelers and checked for trachoma because eye disease would prevent entrance into America. Ophthalmologists in Greece were stationed in Ageranos, Mani and elsewhere in Laconia where prospective immigrants went to make sure they had no contagious conditions or, if they did, to make them well.

Dispersion

The immigrants, after endless suffering, were finally admitted onto the new Promised Land where other adventures began for them. Most newcomers, at least in the early years, stayed in New York and New Jersey. There were small hotels and small shops owned by Greeks, who welcomed them when they were unloaded from the boats that brought them to the south of Manhattan from the Ellis Island. The city was expensive and most had less than thirty dollars in their pockets, so they were in a hurry to continue their journey.

The Greeks who progressed in America were mostly employed in textiles, heavy industry, coal mines and railroads. They often worked for twelve hours and lived in unhealthy homes, cramped in small rooms. Life for Greeks working in the mines and on the railroads was especially difficult. They lived in tents or wooden huts and their diet was very poor. The savage exploitation of underage children, who worked as “blackboots” [the shoeshine business operated by  compatriots] prompted the intervention of American and Greek consular officers.

I don’t think there is a Lakonian that doesn’t have a relative, even a remote one, in America. At the beginning of the previous century, thousands with the hope for a better tomorrow left for the distant continent.

On the Internet, the Ellis Island archives are available, the small island in New York in which all immigrants were registered. While researching for immigrants to America, I worked with this website and found information about Ligerian residents who immigrated to America between 1892 and 1924. For those who don’t know, Ligereas (Λυγερέας) is the smallest local district of the municipality of Gythio and is my wife’s village. I found details of the Ligerian immigrants where their disembarkation was recorded at Ellis Island, a few hours before they were “sucked” into the new land. I found over 190 residents in 32 arrivals reports which contained valuable information that even today’s descendants did not know.

[END OF ARTICLE]

Photo Credits:  All photos are from Mr. McPhail’s original article.
Note:  Mr. McPhail is half Scot, half Greek and he married a Greek lady from Mani. He never went back to England he raised his family ​in Greece. His full name in Greek is written as Ντόναλντ-Γεώργιος Μακφαίηλ. (Many thanks to Marina Haramis for this information)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Papou’s “Pistopoitiko”

A pistopoitiko (πιστοποιητικό) is a document issued by an authorized agent attesting to the proof of a fact. In Greece, these are predominantly used to certify birth (πιστοποιητικό γεννήσεως), marriage ( πιστοποιητικό γάμου) or death (πιστοποιητικό θανάτου). Thus, it is likely that a genealogist will encounter this document at some point in the research process.

For anyone seeking Greek citizenship, the pistopoitiko of birth for a parent or grandparent is mandatory. It certifies that the ancestor is registered as a citizen in Greece and proves the applicant’s Greek heritage. Knowing that it is an important genealogical record and could be of future value to my family, I went to the KEP (Citizen’s Service Center) in Sparta to obtain a pistopoitiko for my paternal grandfather, John Andrew Kostakos (Ioannis Andreas Kostakos – Ιωάννης Ανδρέας Κωστάκος).

KEP Office, Sparta, Greece

Before a pistopoitiko of birth can be issued, a copy of the Male Register (Μιτρώοv Αρρένον ) listing the ancestor must be procured. These can usually be found at a regional office of the General State Archives of Greece. If the Archive office does not have the Male Register for your ancestor’s village, it will be at the Mayor’s office (Dimarheion), the Civil Registry Office (Lixarheion) or the KEP.

One of the first documents I obtained in Greece years ago was the Mitroo Arrenon for my papou Kostakos. He was born in 1879 in Agios Ioannis, and his name is on line 6 below.

Mitroon Arrenon, village of Agios Ioannis, year 1879

I brought a copy of this to Greece with me, and I’m glad I did. It made the process very easy because I did not have to locate it at the Archives or the KEP office.

At the KEP, the first question asked was:  “for what purpose do you need a pistopoitiko?” I replied “for Greek citizenship,” because I knew that was an acceptable response whereas “genealogical research” may not be. I was then asked the name, birth year and village of my grandfather so that a search for his Male Register could commence. This is when I took out the copy and handed it to the clerk. She asked if I obtained the copy from the KEP, and I said no, that it was from the Archive office. She examined it carefully and looked at me several times; I wondered if it was an acceptable copy. Without a word, she turned to her computer and began typing. This is what she handed me:

Pistopoitiko of Birth, John Andrew Kostakos. Obtained at the Sparta KEP office, July 2019.

Translation:
Certification that:  Kostakos, Ioannis of Andreas is written in the Mitroo Arrenon of the village of Agios Ioannnis of the Municipality of Mystra of the Dimos Sparta, Nomos Lakonias, with the birth year of 1879 and serial number 6. He was born in Agios Ioannis and is of Greek nationality by birth. His name was deleted from the Mitroo Arrenon with A.N. 10393/9-11-1982. This pistopoitiko is issued for legal use. The document is signed by an official, and also by the mayor, Kyriakos D. Diamantakos.

Being in Sparta, having the Mitroon Arrenon, and going in person to the KEP made the acquisition of this document an easy process. From a remote location, one could obtain the Mitroo through the regional archive, then contact the KEP office in the area of one’s ancestral village, send the Mitroo, and request a pistopoitiko. Alternatively, the entire process of obtaining both the Mitroo and the pistopoitiko can be done solely through the KEP. The issue is always, will the KEP office respond in a timely manner.

My recommendation is:  if you will be in Greece and you want a pistopoitiko of birth, marriage, or death, plan time in your visit to obtain this in person. Having such a document in your possession may someday be important to you or a member of your family. I am thrilled to have this certification of birth for my papou.

John Andrew Kostakos; my grandfather’s photo from his naturalization papers, 1931